Buy this book!In part 1 of this series, I established the problem latency can cause in high speed networks. What one reader correctly referred to as “big long pipes.” To summarize, in large bandwidth networks that span long distances, network latency becomes the bottleneck that retards performance. The reason for this the impact of network delays on TCP windowing. In part, 2 I will discuss what to do about it.

Dealing with latency can be tricky business. The methods used to mitigate the impact of distance depends on many factors including the services being accessed, the protocols being used, and the amount of money you want to spend. What works for a home user does not work for a multi-national corporation. In general, there are 4 approaches one can take to deal with latency:

  1. Tweak the host TCP settings
  2. Change the protocol
  3. Move the service closer to the user
  4. Use a network accelerator

The first and least effective method is to tweak the TCP settings on your hosts. I say least effective for several reasons: It is hard to determine the correct TCP window size; not all operating systems support the RFC 1323 extensions; you may not have control of all the hosts; available bandwidth may change due to network congestion. Most importantly, some time sensitive applications such as VOIP will still exhibit problems in high latent networks, even if you tweak TCP. Still, if you are a home user on a big long pipe, this is the only option for you. Changing TCP is OS specific. has an excellent series on TCP tuning operating systems. Below are links to his specific guides as well as other sources: (read more…)